|Coronavrius induced cytokine storm
A massive simulation and analysis using the supercomputer at Oakridge led scientists to more accurately identify the general idea that a Covid19 induced "cytokine storm" is responsible for disease progression. After detailed genetic analysis they specifically predicted that Bradykinin (BK) initiated the storm. If correct, this would help improve treatment directions for admitted patients.
BK receptors are coded by BDKRB1 and BDKRB2 (BK2) gene's that operate in a kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), like the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) as another potent regulator of blood pressure. BK is a part of the vasopressor system that induces hypotension and vasodilation, it is degraded by ACE and enhanced by angiotensin1-9, which is produced by ACE2 the receptor that SARS-COV2 binds. BK has been implicated as being active in the metabolic response to stress.
Similar to angiotensin peptides, BK is produced from an inactive pre-protein kininogen through activation by serine protease kallikrein (KKL). KLK1-KLK15 are mostly represented as a cluster of serine proteases on chromosome 19, with different tissue distributions.
KLK's 1-15 further evidence a convergence on chromosome 19, associated closely with a large number of genes involved in blood pressure. KLK's are located at 19q13.41, an active transposon region with a 2x background deletion rate clustered near Zinc Fingers and KIR's (Killer cell like receptors). Chr19 is also associated with MHC precursors around which innate immunity and Natural Killer (NK) cell signaling developed. A link was confirmed in mice uterine NK cells that regulated local tissue blood pressure by at least Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor (AT1R) partly in response to mechanical stretch of vasoconstriction and vasodilation induced by uterine NK's internal RAS.
A study of BK2 confirmed a conserved p53 binding site (rat, mouse and human) and p53-mediated activation of the BK2 promoter was augmented by transcriptional co-activators, CBP/p300. The results demonstrated BK2 promoter as a target of the p53-mediated activation and suggested a new physiological role for p53 in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) gene expression.
A follow up study, by the same group explained that Angiotensin II (AngII), the product of Angiotensin-Renin-Angiotensin1-Ace stimulates the phosphorylation of p53 (on serine 15) and CREB (on serine 133), and that AngII signaling converges on the p53-CRE enhancer to stimulate BK2 gene transcription.
The convergence revealed that AT1R signaling activated CREB phosphorylation and in vivo assembly of p-CREB on the BK2 promoter in conjunction with histone hyperacetylation. It confirmed that AngII stimulates BK2 gene transcription in IMCD3 cells via AT1R. Thus, under conditions of augmented AngII and AT1R signaling, BK expression will be enhanced, thereby maintaining a balance of these two powerful counter-regulatory systems representing a novel form of cross-talk between GPCR's that link RAS and KKS, crucially here via p53.
This combined research indicates that activation of BK2 on endothelial cells, which is mediated by p53 dependent RAS-KKS cross-talk may also implicate AT1R on NK cells to secrete growth disrupting or growth promoting factors in response. SARS-CoV2 bound to ACE2 reduces its availability to convert angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 1-9, which normally enhances BK. The resulting imbalance and increase in circulating angII may directly implicate a NK cells' AT1R RAS response to a CoV2-ACE2 bound cell with disabled p53 promoter of GPCR expression. This cell with a crippled BK2 KKS, hypotension-vasodilation response offers no counter to the the angII induced NK RAS vasoconstrictive function, affecting local tissue blood pressure thus failing to become a NK target.