Saturday, August 19, 2023

Can Ancient Pathways Defeat Cancer?

It has been widely acknowledged that non-coding RNAs are master-regulators of genomic function. The association between human introns and ncRNAs has a pronounced synergistic effect with important implications for fine-tuning gene expression patterns across the entire genome. There is also strong preference of ncRNA from intronic regions particularly associated with the transcribed strand. 

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that, analogous to other small ncRNAs (e.g. miRNAs, siRNA's etc.) piRNAs have both oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles in cancer development. Functionally, piRNAs maintain genomic integrity and cell age by silencing repetitive, transposable elements, and are capable of regulating the expression of specific downstream target genes in a post-transcriptional manner. 

Unlike miRNAs and siRNAs, the precursors of piRNAs are single stranded transcripts without any prominent secondary hairpin structures. These precursors are usually generated from specific genomic locations containing repetitive elements, a process that is typically orchestrated via a Dicer-independent pathway. 

Without restraint, the ancient, L1 class of transposable elements can interrupt the genome through insertions, deletions, rearrangements, and copy number variations. L1 activity has contributed to instability and evolution of genomes, and is tightly regulated by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and piRNA. They can impact genome variation by mispairing and unequal crossing-over during meiosis due to repetitive DNA sequences. Indeed meiotic double-strand breaks are the proximal trigger for retrotransposon eruptions as highlighted in animals lacking p53.

Through a novel 28-base small piRNA of the KIR3DL1 gene, antisense transcripts mediate Killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) transcriptional silencing in immune somatic, Natural Killer (NK) cell lineage, a mechanism that may be broadly used in orchestrating immune development. Expressed on NK cells, KIR's are important determinants of NK cell function. Silencing  individual KIR genes is strongly correlated with the presence of CpG dinucleotide methylation within the promoter. 

Structural research exposed the enormous binding complexity behind KIR haplotypes and HLA allotypes. Not only via protein structures, but also plasticity and selective binding behavior's as influenced by extrinsic factors. One study links a specific recognition of HLA-C*05:01 by KIR2DS4 receptor through a peptide highly conserved among bacteria pathogenic in humans. Another demonstrated a hierarchy of functional peptide selectivity by KIR–HLA-C interactions, including cross-reactive binding, with relevance to NK cell biology and human disease associations. Additionally a p53 peptide most overlapped other high performance peptides for a HLA-C allotype C*02:02 that shares identical contact residues with C*05:01.

Ancient pathways linking p53 to attenuation of aberrant stem cell proliferation may predate the divergence between vertebrates and invertebrates. Human stem cell proliferation, as determined by p53 transposable element silencing, may also serve a NK progenitor to promote the repertoire of more than 30,000 NK cell subsets

A recent study showed that wild type p53 can restrain transposon mobility through interaction with PIWI-piRNA complex. Also, cellular metabolism regulates sensitivity to NK cells depending on P53 status and P53 pathway is coupled to NK cell maturation leaving open the possibility that a direct relationship exists. Further, functional interactions between KIR and HLA modify risks of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and KIR B haplotypes provide selective pressure for altered P53 in BCC tumors

Anticipating p53's broader influences or responses, cells, extracted from 48 different sections of 7 tumor biopsies were sequenced and TP53 DNA computed using Codondex algorithm. Each section produced a TP53 Consensus Variant (CV), represented by its intron1, ncDNA Key Sequence's (KS). Bioinformatic correlations between each KS and cytotoxicity resulting from NK coculture with the section may predict KIR-HLA and extrinsic factor plasticity to reliably determine from KS's, optimal cell/tissue selections for NK cell education and licensing.