Wednesday, November 25, 2020

Not Only A Killer A System for Killing!

The next time you're out exercising, spare a thought for your busy mitochondria. NASA scientists just reported mitochondria as the key to health problems in space.

Natural killer (NK) cells can extend membrane probes into cells or pathogens. These are loaded with granulysin (GNLY) to penetrate and perforin (PFN) to kill intracellular bacteria or protozoa and can lyse entire cells. The probes can also transfer healthy mitochondria to apoptotic cardiomyocytes (and other cells) in need of mitochondrial transfer. Uterine NK cells of the decidua send probes into trophoblasts to selectively kill intracellular Listeria monocytogenes without killing the trophoblast host. Stressed cells, moving toward apoptosis can behave similarly, but in reverse shooting out nanoprobes to proximal cells seeking cooperation and urgent mitochondrial transfers including to cancer cells.

A meta-analysis of gene expression signatures for blood pressure and hypertension in 7017 individuals from 6 international studies found of 7717 genes, 34 were most differentialy expressed including GNLY. Enrichment analysis for the diastolic and systolic gene group's associated strongly with NK cell mediated cytotoxicity and 13 other pathways including antigen processing and inflammatory response.

Formation of membrane probes or tubes, in which mitochondria travel and establishment of intracellular mitochondrial networks in the peripheral zone of cells require Kinesin-1 heavy chain (KIF5B). KIF5B is also required for female meiosis (oogenesis) and proper chromosomal segregation in mitotic cells and modulates central spindle organization in late-stage cytokinesis in chondrocytes.

A study of centromere heterochromatin (connected with central spindle) surprisingly showed that distant euchromatic regions, enriched in repressed methylated genes also interacted with the hierarchical organization of centromeric DNA. These 3D spatial interactions (at a distance) are likely mediated by liquid-like fusion events and can influence the health of individuals. Repressed gene's were identified as transposable elements, sequences often associated with pathogenic DNA insertions that have been persistently retained.  

KIF5B is an interaction partner of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8b (Arl8b), which is required for NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity that drives polarization of lytic granules and microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) toward the immune synapse between NK and target cells. Silencing experiments that led to failure of MTOC-lytic granule polarization suggest Arl8b and KIF5B together control the critical step in NK cell cytotoxicity. 

KIF5B is also a critical transporter of p53 and c-Myc to the cytoplasm for degradation. However, subcellular localization of Arl8b and p53-dependent cell death was shown to occur through knockdown of acetylation subunit NatC. As a consequence, p53 is stabilized, phosphorylated and significantly activates transcription of downstream proapoptotic genes. In the absence KIF5B, or presence of  mutants p53 and c-Myc aggregate in the nucleus where they signal DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the control of p53 by endogenous c-Myc (in vivo).

Finely tuned, frequently used KIF5B in NK cells expressing GNLY may induce effects on local tissue blood pressure, as was discovered by expression of Renin-Angiotensin vasoactive proteins AT1, AT2, and ANP in pregnancy-induced uterine NK cellsInflammation signaling, via tissue bound NK cells may result from stretch-mediated release of angiotensin II, which is coupled with p53 acetylation apoptosis and activation of p53. This may prolong upregulation of the local renin-angiotensin system, increase susceptibility of target cells to apoptosis and signal adaptive immune cells. 

Somewhere in the balance between NatC knockdown induced apoptosis and angiotensin II induced apoptosis p53 may direct traffic to keep your cells healthy!


Monday, November 2, 2020

An Integrated P53 Puzzle - Glycolysis in Cancer, Diabetes and Immunity!

Oxygen poor, hypoxic tissue promotes a cellular shift in mitochondrial metabolism from OXPHOS to less energy efficient glycolysis. Each shift induces environmental, epigenetic and genetic factors that alter a cells response to insult, attack and disease. Endothelial tip cells at micro-vessel ends are predominantly glycolytic. However, deletion of PFKFB3, the critical regulator of glycolysis reduced the sprouting of micro-vessel tips and elevated PFKFB3 levels improved tip cell sprouting, direction and cell behavior.

In response to DNA damage p53 promotes nucleotide biosynthesis by repressing the expression of PFKFB3. This increases the flux of glucose, through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to increase nucleotide production, which results in more efficient repair of DNA damage and cell survival.

In Panc1 pancreatic cells, pro-apoptotic TGFβ1 enhanced PFKFB3 expression and stimulated glycolysis. Extracellular lactate induces endothelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) by remodeling the extracellular matrix and releasing activated TGFβ1.  TGFβ is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine that can impede development and function of natural killer (NK) and other immune cells. Furthermore, high extracellular lactate levels can contribute to immune evasion, thereby promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In tumor microenvironments glycolysis also leads to accumulated lactate, which stabilizes hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1) and upregulates the expression of anti-apoptotic, VEGF (in axis with NRP-1 dependency) resulting in angiogenesis and stimulation of cell migration. 

Hypoxia induces the loss of differentiation markers of several tumor types while increasing expression of embryonic markers such as transcription factors NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, and the Notch ligand. This reprogramming, toward a cancer stem phenotype is associated with increased tumorigenesis. In non-small cell lung carcinoma cells hypoxia increased NANOG expression that contributed to hypoxia-induced tumor cell resistance against cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis.

Under stress the outer mitochondrial membrane incorporates Pink1, which binds and phosphorylates p53 at serine 392 and aids phagophore formation to enhance mitophagy. This reduces transport of p53-s392 to the nucleus where it would otherwise disrupt transcription of Nanog. p53 regulates Pink1 and Parkin, which regulate mitochondrial antigen presentation of both MHC classes. 

The development of type 1 diabetes involves a complex interaction between pancreatic β-cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Analyses of the interactions between NK cells, NKT cells, dendritic cell populations and T cells have highlighted how these can influence the onset of autoimmunity. NK cells were observed in the pancreas, in NoD mice before T cell infiltration and are critically required in the pancreas for accelerated diabetes.

The islet in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by IAPP amyloid deposits, a protein co-expressed with insulin by β-cells. Human IAPP (hIAPP) misfolded protein stress activates HIF-1/PFKFB3 signaling, which increases glycolysis, mitochondrial fragmentation and perinuclear clustering, considered protective against increased cytosolic Ca2+, characteristic of amylin toxic oligomer stress. β-cells in adult humans are minimally replicative and fail to execute the second pro-regenerative phase of the HIF-1/PFKFB3 injury pathway. β-cells remain trapped in the pro-survival first phase of the HIF-1 injury repair response with a metabolism and mitochondrial network adapted to slow the rate of cell attrition at the expense of β-cell function. The senescent-like state may support the reduced NK cell activity and presence of more pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages in T2D

p53 deficient tumors can be metabolically reprogrammed and regressed by deleting isoforms of p63 or p73 to upregulate IAPP and amylin, which through the calcitonin receptor (CalcR) and receptor-activity-modifying-protein 3 (RAMP3) inhibit glycolysis, induce ROS and apoptosis. In epidermal keratinocytes p63 promotes glycolytic metabolism  by binding PFKFB3 consensus sites required for mRNA and protein expression.

Senescent cells typically upregulate anti-apoptotic pathways, and are preferentially susceptible to inhibition of these pro-survival mechanisms. This has been dubbed the ‘Achilles heel’ of senescent cells and may relate to the low mitochondrial membrane potential found in many senescent cells that ease the release of apoptosis-stimulating factors from mitochondria to promote survival. Similar weaknesses may be present through glycolysis in cancer, diabetes, other diseases and immune response.