Tuesday, January 26, 2021

Systolic Blood Pressure and Innate Immunity vs. the Cancer Brain

Participants with a valid heart disease phenotype (atherosclerosis) were identified in a MESA blood pressure analysis conducted over 10 years. The valid group varied from 770 to 1113 patients from whom further blood analysis queried a primary and exploratory hypothesis of immune cell subsets. Four statistically significant innate cell subsets were discovered to be associated with Systolic blood pressure (SBP); Natural Killer (NK) cells, gamma delta T cells and classical monocytes.

Separately, an analysis of 7017 individuals from 6 international studies of gene expression signatures for SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and hypertension (HTN) found of 7717 genes 34 were most differentialy expressed. Enrichment analysis for the systolic and diastolic gene group's associated to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity and 13 other pathways including antigen processing and inflammatory response, pointing strongly to innate and adaptive immunity. MYADM was the only identified gene in SBP, DBP and HTN groups.

MYADM controls endothelial barrier function through ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM)-dependent regulation of ICAM-1 expression. ERM expression is required for ICAM-1 expression in response to MYADM suppression or TNF-α. ICAM-1 is a paradigmatic adhesion receptor that regulates leukocyte adhesion. This connection between endothelial membrane and cortical actin cytoskeleton appears to modulate the inflammatory response at the blood tissue barrier. 

Pressure overload activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and up-regulates p53 expression in the cardiac endothelium and in bone marrow (BM) cells. Increased p53 expression promotes endothelial-leukocyte cell adhesion and initiates inflammation in cardiac tissue, which exacerbates systolic dysfunction. SNS activates, at least by significant increase of circulating norepinephrine (NE), which up-regulates p53 expressions, while forced expression of p53 increased ICAM-1 expression. 

On endothelial cells SNS is mediated via catecholamine-β2-adrenergic signaling, which up-regulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates p53 and induces cellular senescence. Immune cells, including macrophages, monocytes, NK cells, B and T cells express the β2-adrenergic receptor and catecholamine. During pressure overload, NE cultured macrophages up-regulated p53 expression, whereas introduction of p53 increased Itgal (LFA-1) expression (which binds ICAM-1). Treatment with NE increased ROS, which was attenuated after inhibition of β2- adrenergic signaling in macrophages. Endothelial cell–macrophage interaction via NE-ROS-p53 signaling induces up-regulation of adhesion molecules, thus contributing to cardiac inflammation and systolic dysfunction.

During hypertension the vascular endothelium activates monocytes, in part through ROS by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) signaling, increased release of IL-6, hydrogen peroxide and a parallel increase in STAT activation in adjacent monocytes. NO inhibits formation of intermediate monocytes and STAT3 activation. Humans with hypertension have increased intermediate and non-classical monocytes and  intermediate monocytes demonstrate evidence of STAT3 activation. Mice with experimental hypertension exhibit increased aortic and renal infiltration of monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages with activated STAT3.

A senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) was induced in epithelial cells after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude. In premalignant epithelial cells SASPs induced an epithelial–mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy by a paracrine mechanism that largely depended interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS exacerbated the pro-malignant activities. This suggests a cell-non-autonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain and oncogenic RAS can promote the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment. Oncogenic signaling pathways inhibit the p53 gene transcription rate through a mechanism involving Stat3, which binds to the p53 promoter in vitro and in vivo. Blocking Stat3 in cancer cells up-regulates expression of p53, leading to p53-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. 

Induced stretch or stretch from pressure overload may engage a non-autonomous, p53 centric micro-mechanical mechanism that escalates or deescalates innate responses against cells functioning outside the mechanical ranges that macrophages or NK cells permit. Thus, the neuro-immune extension through SNS signaling, may begin with circulating blood pressure or stretch promoted through inflammation

Sunday, January 10, 2021

Genetic Eruption and p53 Response!

L1 are a class of transposable DNA elements found in 17% of the genome that are evolutionarily associated with primitive viral origins. Around 100 have retained the ability to retrotranspose. Without restraint they can interrupt the genome through insertions, deletions, rearrangements, and copy number variations. L1 activity has contributed to instability and evolution of genomes, and is tightly regulated by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and piRNA. They can further impact genome variation by mispairing and unequal crossing-over during meiosis due to its repetitive DNA sequences. Indeed, meiotic double-strand breaks are the proximal trigger for retrotransposon eruptions as highlighted in animals lacking p53.

189 gastrointestinal cancer patients across three cancer types: 95 stomach, colorectal esophageal were examined for any aberration in DNA repair pathways that could be associated with L1 retro-transposition. Out of 15 DNA repair pathways, only the TP53 repair pathway showed a significant association. L1 retro-transposition is inversely correlated with expression of immunologic response genes including interferons. Frequent TP53 mutations in tumors with a higher load of L1 insertions suggest the critical role of TP53 in restricting retrotransposons as a guardian of L1 expression and cancer immunity.

A screen of 172 open reading frames (orfs), of unknown genetic function across several human viruses was designed to discover novel interactions with p53. The orfs encoded viral proteins, miRNA's and lncRNA's. The ORFEOME project was based on the hypothesis that every virus should encode some functions that interfere with the p53 signaling network. The methods present a broad net by screening for interactions without necessarily defining how interactions arise.

The DNA damage response (DDR) pathway stabilizes p53 leading to increased nuclear relocation, binding to p53 response elements, rearrangement of chromatin and transcription of p53 target genes. Any of the multiple p53 related interactions along the way is a potential target of translated viral proteins on the function of p53. 

p53 is also induced in response to viral infections as a downstream transcriptional target of type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Cells with functional p53 exhibited markedly decreased viral replication early after infection. This early inhibition of viral replication was mediated both in vitro and in vivo by a p53-dependent enhancement of IFN signaling by the induction of genes containing IFN-stimulated response elements. p53 also contributed to an increase in IFN release from infected cells. This p53-dependent enhancement of IFN signaling is dependent to a great extent on p53 activation and transcription of IFN regulatory factor 9, a central component of the IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 complex. Thus p53 contributes to innate immunity by enhancing IFN-dependent antiviral activity independent of its functions as a proapoptotic and tumor suppressor gene.

p53 likely cooperates with histone and DNA methylation to silence specific retroelements. In the zebrafish model, it was shown that p53-dependent H3K9me3 methylation, in the promoter region of a synthetic human LINE1 element mapped to a known p53-binding site. Some evidence in human cell lines suggests that p53 can physically interact with both H3K9 tri-methyltransferases and DNA methyltransferases. In basal stress-free conditions, unacetylated p53 is pre-bound to many target genes together with SET - a repressor protein, which mediates repression of p53 target genes. Additionally, p53 as a master regulator of transcription might regulate gene expression of key epigenetic or piRNA factors. 

Through L1's we get a sense of p53's interconnectedness to DNA damage, viral replication, cancer and immunity. In a way we can sympathize with it, especially when overloaded by viral infiltration and eruption. Its understandable how, under those conditions double stranded DNA breaks and pathway impediments compromise its ability to be guardian of the genome!