Tuesday, June 21, 2022

Educating Perfect Natural Killers

Mining Tissue Match for Immune Co-culture

Mutant p53 knockdown in KPC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) cells of immune deficient mice had no effect on primary tumor growth, by contrast the reduced tumor growth in the immune-proficient syngeneic host was due to altered immune cell recruitment.

In vivo, the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines coupled with increased Natural Killer (NK) cell ligand expression permits the recruitment of immune cells and clearance of abnormal cells. Elimination of senescent tumors by NK cells may occur as a result of the cooperation of signals associated with p53 expression or senescence, which regulate NK cell recruitment, and other signals that induce NKG2D ligand expression on tumor cells.

Coculture of wild-type (wt) p53-induced human tumor cells with primary human NK cells enhanced NKG2D-dependent degranulation and IFN-γ production by NK cells. Taken together findings define the involvement of p53 in the regulation of specific NKG2D ligands that enhance NK cell–mediated target recognition.

Inhibitory KIR-educated NK cells showed significantly increased expression of the glucose transporter Glut1 in comparison to NKG2A-educated or uneducated NK cells, with and without exposure to target cells. Educated NK cells displayed significantly higher rates of cellular glycolysis than uneducated NK cells indicating they may reside in different metabolic states prior to activation. The ability to metabolize glucose may represent a mechanism for the superior functionality of educated NK cells expressing KIR receptors. 

Cancer cells acquire immunoediting abilities by which they evade surveillance and escape eradication. Murine p53 missense mutation G242A (human G245A) suppresses activation of host NK cells, enabling breast cancer cells to avoid immune assault. Serial injection of EMT6 breast cancer cells that carry wild-type (wt) Trp53 promoted NK activity, while SVTneg2 cells carrying Trp53 G242A+/+ mutation decreased NK cell numbers and increased CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers in spleen. Upon co-culture with isolated NK cells, EMT6 cells activated NK cells and proliferation, increasing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production; however, SVTneg2 cells suppressed NK cell activation. p53 can modulate expression by cancer cells of Mult-1 and H60a activating and inhibitory ligands for NKG2D receptors of NK cells, respectively, to enhance immune surveillance against cancer. p53 is requisite for NK cell-based immune recognition and elimination of cancerous cells, and p53 missense mutant in cancer cells impairs NK cell responses.

NK cells are the oldest member of the innate lymphoid cell family (ILC) and the only representative of cytotoxic ILCs. These tissue-resident innate immune cells have a similar functional diversity to T cells including lineage-specifying transcription factors that drive certain effector programs. ILCs are present in almost every tissue, but strongly enriched at barrier surfaces, where they regulate immunity to infection, chronic inflammation, and tissue maintenance. ILCs orchestrate tissue homeostasis through their ability to sustain bidirectional interactions with epithelial cells, neurons, stromal cells, adipocytes, and many other tissue-resident cells. ILCs provide an integrated view on how immune responses in tissues are synchronized with functional relevance far beyond the classical view of the role of the immune system in discrimination between self/non-self and host defense.

Codondex has evidenced p53 genetic variations, in multiple samples of same biopsy tissue from pancreatic tumors and oral squamous cell carcinoma's that may distinguish host tumor tissue gradients. The effect of highly-specific tissue-selected cell co-culture to educate ILC/NK cells may enhance the prospect for tissue penetration by these expanded, activated cytotoxic cells to improve overall survival.  

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